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APA Toolkit: References and In-Text Citations

American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

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APA Reference List

APA Reference List

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Source, Volume (Issue), page range. Retrieved from [URL web address].

I'm citing a...

 

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &. If there are more than 8 authors, only list 8 and include an ellipsis (...) between the second to last and last author].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the article [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Title of the journal [Capitalized and in italics],
  5. Volume # of the journal [in italics]
  6. Issue # (if any),
  7. Page range [xx-xx].
  8. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) (if any, there is usually a DOI if the article was published online first or not within a volume or issue)

 

Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., ... & Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, 13(6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750

 

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year, Month, Date (xxxx, Month xx).
  3. Title of the article [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Title of the newspaper or publication [Capitalized and in italics],
  5. URL Retrieved from [URL].

 

Kennedy, M. (2018, October 15). To prevent wildfires, PG&E pre-emptively cuts power to thousands in California. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/10/15/657468903/to-prevent-wildfires-pg-e-preemptively-cuts-power-to-thousands-in-california.

 

Print Book
  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the book [Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics].
  4. Edition(# ed.). [if any]
  5. City, State of Publication [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  6. Publisher.

 

Lee, H. (1960). To kill a mockingbird (1st ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co.
eBook
  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the book [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics].
  4. E-reader version, if any [Kingle, ePub, HTML. etc].
  5. Edition, if any (# ed.).
  6. URL Retrieved from [URL or subscription database].

 

Crouch, A. T., & Meurier, C. (Eds.). (2005). Vital notes for nurses: Health assessment. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.

 

  1. Author(s) of the chapter [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the chapter [Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Editor(s) of the book In [First Initial, Middle Initial, Last Name &...] (Ed.) or (Eds.),
  5. Title of the book [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics]
  6. Page range (pp. xxx-xxx).
  7. City, State of Publication [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  8. Publisher.
  9. URL, if any Retrieved from [URL or subscription database].

 

Preheim, G. (2008). Clinical scholar model: Competency development within a caring curriculum. In M. H. Oermann (Ed.), Annual review of nursing education. New York, NY: Springer. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Academic eBook Collection.
.

 

  1. Author or organization [Full name of organization].
  2. Year (xxxx). [or (n.d.). for no date]
  3. Title of page, section, or document [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Format description [Web page, blog post, etc].
  5. URLRetrieved from [URL].

 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Protect yourself with vaccination. [Web page]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/adultvaccinations/.

 

  1. Author, government agency, or organization [Full name of organization].
  2. Year (xxxx). [or (n.d.). for no date]
  3. Title of the report or document [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized, in italics].
  4. Report number (Report No. ## ). [if any]
  5. URL Retrieved from [URL].

 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Health Statistics Reports. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007 (Report No. 12). Retrieved from https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/5266.

APA In-text Citations

APA In-text Citations

Basic Format:
(Last Name, Year).

I'm using...

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Shavers (2007), "Direct quote" (p. #).
  • Shavers (2007) found that "Direct quote" (p. #).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Shavers, 2007, p. 1021).

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words...

Use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks, but are indented 1/2" as a visual cue of a citation. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quotation.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Toro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Research cited in an APA paper is focused more on the synthesis of findings from a variety of research studies, and less about the exact phrasing or argument of an individual.

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status, among others (p. 1016).

I'm citing...

You only need the author's last name and the year.

(Abrams, 2018)

Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand), and include the year.

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

If there are 3-5 authors...

In the first in-text citation:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent in-text citations:
(Kernis, et al., 1993)

If there are 6+ authors...

You only need the first author's name, followed by et al., and the year.
(Harris, et al., 2018)

What does the general format of an APA paper look like?

What does the general format of an APA paper look like? 

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor. 

2. Right click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

Animated gif of creating a hanging indent in Word. Highlight the full citation. Right click. Go to Paragraph. To to the Special drop down menu, select Hanging. Select Okay.

How can I save time formatting my paper?

How can I save time formatting my paper? 

Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text! 

1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply. 

2. Select Format Painter

3. Highlight the text you want to change. 

Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics. 

Animated gif of using the Format Painter tool in Word.

CC Lincense

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide was adapted from Citation Guide by Tessa Withorn, Maggie Clarke, Jillian Holt Eslami, and Carolyn Caffrey Gardner and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

How do I get my page numbers to start at 1 on the second page?

How do I get my page numbers to start at 1 on the second page? 

1. Double click the header on the second page. 

2. Select Page Numbers and top right. 

3. Right click the page number. 

4. Select Format Page Numbers.

5. Change Start at from 1 to 0. 

Note: Make sure the header is set to Different First Page for the running head. 

Animated gif of starting page numbers at 1 on the second page in Word.